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Explain utilitarianism essay
be classified as morally right or wrong only if the consequences are of such significance that a person would wish to see the agent compelled, not merely persuaded and exhorted, to act in the preferred manner. Most opponents of Utilitarianism have held that it has implications contrary to their moral intuitionsthat considerations of utility, for example, might sometimes sanction the breaking of a promise. If one act requires a longer period of time for its performance than another, one may ask whether they can be considered alternatives. In economic policy, the early Utilitarians had tended to oppose governmental interference in trade and industry on the assumption that the economy would regulate itself for the greatest welfare if left alone; later Utilitarians, however, lost confidence in the social efficiency of private enterprise and. A moralist, he maintained, could sum up the units of pleasure and the units of pain for everyone likely to be affected, immediately and in the future, and could take the balance as a measure of the overall good or evil tendency of an action. Bentham believed that a hedonic calculus is theoretically possible.
In rule utilitarianism they believe that people should follow the moral rules as it is for all good, however in act utilitarianism they believe that the act itself determines whether it is right or wrong, however it is the consequence which does.read more. To meet the objection to not permitting an occasional lie or theft, some philosophers have defended a modification labelled rule, utilitarianism. In act utilitarianism the aim is to produce 'the greatest good for the greatest number' this is determined by the use.read more. Helvétius probably drew from Hume, and Beccaria from Helvétius. Bentham and Mill both believed that human actions are motivated entirely by pleasure and pain; and Mill saw that motivation as a basis for the argument that, since happiness is the sole end of human action, the promotion of happiness is the test by which. Greatest number- The Democratic Theory is put in place, this is Benthams rule that pleasure cant be for one person alone. Late 19th- and 20th-century Utilitarianism By the time Sidgwick wrote, Utilitarianism had become one of the foremost ethical theories of the day. Bentham's ideal of a hedonic calculus is usually considered a practical if not a theoretical impossibility. Mill believed that 'the well being of the individual was of greatest importance and that happiness is most effectively gained when the individual are free to pursue their own ends, subject to the rules that protect the common good of all'. Antecedents of Utilitarianism among the ancients A hedonistic theory of the value of life is found in the early 5th century BC in the ethics of Aristippus of Cyrene, founder of the Cyrenaic school, and 100 years later in that of Epicurus, founder.
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